Great scene from outer space. A comet, some galactic space dust, a few starts and a planet with a moon. Throw in a rocket and you are in outer space.
To start the comet, create a rectangle.
Use the Direct Selection Tool to select one end and pull the corner widgets in to the max amount.
Fill the shape with a color, no stroke.
Select the shape and choose Object > Path > Offset Path.
Set the offset to a negative number to create a smaller shape inside.
Repeat this process by selecting the new path, then performing the offset path on it. You will want to get 4 shapes. Use the Direct Selection Tool to select the right side of each shape and change the length. Top one is the shortest, back one is the longest.
Draw a few rectangles over the shortest shape.
Duplicate the rectangles over the next longest shape.
Select the top shape and the rectangles on top. Choose the Minus Front mode in the Pathfinder panel.
Use the Direct Selection Tool to change the length of the fingers.
Use the Direct Selection Tool to select the ends of the ends and pull the corner widgets to round the fingers.
Repeat the last 3 steps on the next shape down. Round the fingers to make it look like streaks.
Apply a Gradient to the top two shapes. Change the color of the gradient by double-clicking the gradient stops to pick a color.
Make the color of the gradient fill lighter on the left, darker on the right. Select all the shapes and group them together.
To create a planet, draw a circle.
Draw an oval over the planet. Rotate the oval to create a ring.
Choose Object > Path >Outline Stroke to turn the stroke into a shape.
Select both shapes and use the Pathfinders Divide mode. Ungroup the shapes, then select the piece that would go behind the planet and fill it with the same color as the planet. Select all 3 parts of the planet and use the Pathfinder Unite Mode to create a solid planet again.
Create more fingers for contrast on the planet. Draw rectangles, make the so they touch, vary the length.
Use the Pathfinder Unite Mode to create a single shape.
Use the Direct Selection Tool to pull all the corner widgets to round all the left ends. Copy the shape.
Select the planet and click on the Draw Inside Mode at the bottom of the Tool bar. Paste the fingers and move them into position. Click on the Draw Normal mode.
Click on the Draw Normal mode.
Create a moon for the planet with varying size circles.
Copy the smaller shapes and click on the Draw Inside Mode at the bottom of the Tool bar and paste the copied circles in. Click on the Draw Normal mode when done.
To create the space theme, draw a rectangle and add a gradient from a dark blue to a dark purple.
Add the comet, planet and moon. Scale the objects to fit into the scene.
To create a star, draw a circle.
Choose Effect >Distort and Transform > Pucker & Bloat. Set the slider to Pucker.
This takes a circle and puckers it to look like a star.
Fill the star with white, add them to the scene. Copy and scale the stars as desired. Add small circles for other stars.
To create space dust, draw a few rectangles. Stagger their lengths.
Select all the shapes and use the Pathfinder Unite mode to create one shape.
Use the Direct Selection Tool to select the shapes and pull the corner widgets in to round all the ends.
Add the space dust to the scene, set the opacity of the dust to 20% to blend it in, Create different variation of space dust for variety.
Add a Rocket. You can find that Rocket Tutorial here. Draw an arc to create a trail from the rocket.
Use the Width Shape Tool on the rockets path to pull the stroke width narrower at the rocket and wider at the bottom. And you are done!